The teeth are a small, calcified, whitish structure that is found in the jaws of a person and of many vertebrates. The teeth are used to break down food. Most of the animals (particularly with carnivores), also use teeth for their hunting and also for defense purposes. Teeth are not made of bone but it is rather made up of tissues varying the density and hardness. The cellular tissues that become teeth are from the embryonic germ layer which is called, the ectoderm.
The general structure of the teeth is also similar with the vertebrates, although there is considerable variation in their own form and position. The usual teeth of mammals have deep roots, and it also has the same pattern with some fish, and in crocodilians. In most of the teleost fish, however, their teeth are attached to the outer surface of its bone. while for lizards, the teeth are attached from the inner surface of the jaw by one side. For cartilaginous fish, such as sharks, the teeth are attached by the tough ligaments to the hoops of the cartilage that will form the jaw.
The human teeth primarily function as breaking down items such as food by crushing and cutting them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely, incisors, canines, molars, and premolars. Each type of tooth has its different jobs.
The incisors are found in the very front part of the teeth. They are considered to be the sharpest teeth, it is built to cut food, and its shape shovels the food inward.
The canine teeth are found in the corners of a person’s mouth. They are used to grasp and tear food, and they have very long roots.
Premolars are located just behind the Canine teeth. The premolars have a flatter structure for chewing because they are meant to crush food.
Molars are the last teeth that can be found towards the back of your mouth. The molars are much bigger than the premolars and have a bigger flatter chewing structure because the job of the molars is to chew and grind the food to smaller pieces.
The teeth of the humans are considered to be the hardest substance. Besides being vital for chewing, the teeth plays an important role in speech. Each part of the teeth plays an essential role in the mouth. The roots of the teeth that were embedded in the maxilla (or the upper jaw) or the mandible (lower jaw) and at the same time covered by the gums.
Teeth are one of the most distinctive and long-lasting features of the mammal species. Humans and other mammals are known to be diphyodont or who develops two sets of teeth. The first set of the teeth or also called baby, milk, primary, or deciduous set usually starts to appear about six months of age, though some babies are already born with one or more visible teeth commonly known as neonatal teeth. The normal eruption of the tooth is around six months, known to be teething and can be painful for the baby.
Parts of the teeth
Enamel is the hardest, white outer part of the tooth and is made of calcium phosphate (rock-hard mineral). The enamel is the most highly mineralized substance part of the body and it is one of the four major tissues that makes up a tooth, along with a dentin, cementum, and dental pulp. It is usually visible and should be supported with underlying dentin.
96% of the enamel consists of mineral, it also comprised of other material such as water and organic material the rest. The color of the enamel ranges from light yellow to grayish white. There is no dentin that underlies on the enamel at the edges of the teeth making it turn into a slightly blue tone. The color of the dentin and any restorative dental material under the enamel will strongly affect the appearance of the tooth since the enamel is semi-translucent. The enamel varies in thickness on the surface of the tooth and is often thickest at the cusp (up to 2.5mm) and thinnest at the border.
The primary mineral of the Enamel is hydroxyapatite, which is known to be a crystalline calcium phosphate. The large amounts of the minerals in enamel is not only for its capability of strength but also a character for brittleness. The dentin that is less mineralized and less brittle will compensate for enamel and it is vital as a support
Dentin is the substance found in the enamel or cementum and the pulp chamber. It is secreted by the odontoblasts of the dental pulp. Dentinogenesis is the formation of the dentin. The porous, yellow-hued material is usually made up of 70% inorganic materials, 20% organic materials, and 10% of water by weight. Because it is softer than the enamel, it usually decays quicker and commonly the subject of severe cavities if not properly treated. However, the dentin still works as a protective layer and supports the crown of the tooth.
Dentin is comprised of mineralized connective tissue with an organic matrix of collagenous proteins. Dentinal tubules are the microscopic channels of dentin in which it radiates outward through dentin from the pulp cavity going to the exterior part of cementum or enamel border. Though they have the tiny side-branches, the tubules won’t intersect with each other. The length is known through the radius of the tooth.
The cementum is a specialized bone. It consists of approximately 45% inorganic material which is made up mainly with hydroxyapatite, 33% organic material which is made u of collagen, and water. It is secreted by the cementoblasts within the root of the tooth and it is considered to be thickest at the root apex. The color of the cementum is usually yellowish and it is softer than the dentin and enamel. The main role of the cementum is to serve as a layer of tissue that binds the root of the teeth firmly to the gums and the jawbone.
The pulp is the central part of the tooth that is filled with soft connective tissue. The tissues have blood vessels and nerves that enter inside the tooth from the hole at the apex of the root. The border between the dentin and the pule are called odontoblasts, that initiates the formation of dentin. The pulp is known as “the nerve” of the tooth.
The normal adult normally has 32 teeth, except for the wisdom teeth that will erupt around 13 years of age:
- Incisors: it is found at the middlemost four teeth on the upper and lower jaws. (a total of 8)
- Canines: The pointed teeth outside the incisors. (a total of 4)
- Premolars: They are the teeth found between the canines and molars. (a total of 8)
- Molars: The flat teeth in the rear part of the mouth which is best at grinding food. (a total of 8)
- Wisdom teeth or the third molars: It usually erupts around the age of 8, but they are often being surgically removed to prevent the displacement of the other teeth. (a total of 4)
The common teeth conditions that usually occurs in a person are:
Cavities are usually from a tooth decay that damages the tooth. The tooth decay can affect both the outer coating of a tooth which is the enamel and the inner layer which is the dentin. The usual cause of the decay is due to the intake of foods rich in carbohydrates like bread, cereal, milk, soda, fruit, cake, or candy that stays on the teeth. The bacteria inside the mouth usually turn them into acids. The combination of bacteria, acid, food debris, and the saliva will form plaque, that will cling to the teeth. The acids from the plaque will dissolve the enamel, creating the holes called cavities.
- Tooth decay
The tooth decay is a type of damage to the teeth that occurs when the bacteria inside the mouth creates an acid. It will eventually lead to a hole in the tooth, cavity. If not treated immediately, tooth decay may cause pain, infection, and tooth loss.
It is a serious gum infection that will damage the soft tissue and will destroy the bone that is supporting the teeth. The periodontitis causes the tooth loss or even worst. An increased risk of heart attack or stroke and other serious health problems may occur. The periodontitis is common but also preventable. It is usually the result of a poor oral hygiene. Brushing at least twice a day, flossing daily and getting regular dental check-ups will reduce the chance of developing periodontitis.
Gingivitis is a common and mild form of gum disease that will cause irritation, redness, and swelling of the gums. Since the gingivitis can be mild, a person may not be aware of the condition. However, gingivitis may lead to much more serious gum disease and will eventually have tooth loss.
Plaque is a sticky, colorless film that is made of bacteria and the substances they secrete. The plaque will develop quickly on teeth after consuming food that is rich in carbohydrates like sugars and starches, milk, soft drinks, raisins, cakes, or candy that are usually left on the teeth. The bacteria live in the mouth that thrives on the food and will produce acids as a result. The acid will destroy the tooth enamel, resulting it to tooth decay. The plaque will also develop on the roots of a tooth under the gum and will cause breakdown of the bone supporting the tooth.
With the presence of bacteria inside the mouth, they will mix with the proteins and the food by-products to form a sticky film called dental plaque. This will coat the teeth and will penetrate under the gum line, and sticks to fillings or other dental work. Plaque carries bacteria that may damage the tooth enamel and can lead to cavities. But if the plaque is removed regularly, you can prevent the permanent tooth decay and gum disease. If plaque stays on teeth and it hardens, it will turn to tartar. The tartar or the calculus forms below and above the gum line. It is usually rough and porous, it eventually can lead to receding gums and gum disease.
Overbite is when the upper teeth protrude significantly over the lower teeth.
Underbite is when the lower teeth protrude significantly past the upper teeth.
However, above all the conditions that were mentioned, this can be prevented if a person has a proper dental health care. One best product for dental health care is the coconut oil. Using the coconut oil is one of the best ways to remove bacteria and promote healthily. The coconut oil has different benefits on teeth and gums when it is used. It can be effective in a procedure for certain remedy to:
- Curing tooth decays
- It kills bad breath
- Heals bleeding gums
- Prevents Heart disease.
- It reduces inflammation
- It whitens the teeth
- It soothes the throat dryness
- Prevents cavities
- Heals cracked lips
- Boosts the immune system
- Improves acne
- It strengthens gums and jaw
The coconut oil also balances the hormones, improves digestion, kills candida, moisturizes the skin, reduces cellulite, it decreases the wrinkles and age spots, it balances blood sugar and improves energy, it improves Alzheimer’s, increase HDL and LDL cholesterol, and burns fat.
The procedure to be done in using the coconut for the teeth is called coconut oil pulling. Coconut oil pulling cleanse (detoxify) the oral cavity in a similar way how the soap cleans the dirty dishes. It will remove the toxins out of the mouth and creates, an antiseptic oral environment that will contribute to the proper flow of the dental liquid that is important to prevent the cavities and diseases.
Coconut oil pulling is a process wherein the oil is being swished inside the mouth with a starting amount of ½-1 tablespoon and swish it inside the mouth with swallowing for 10-20 minutes. Coconut oil pulling can be used at a very young age.